Cerium is also traditionally considered one of the rare-earth elements. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect: Note that, it was found the rest mass of an atomic nucleus is measurably smaller than the sum of the rest masses of its constituent protons, neutrons and electrons. Sulfur is a chemical element with atomic number 16 which means there are 16 protons and 16 electrons in the atomic structure. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it. Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Indium is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth’s crust. Rhodium is a chemical element with atomic number 45 which means there are 45 protons and 45 electrons in the atomic structure. Fermium is a chemical element with atomic number 100 which means there are 100 protons and 100 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Uranium is U. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. Radicals (ions) are atoms or group of atoms which carry positive or negative charge and behave as a single unit during a chemical reaction. Thulium is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster. Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. The chemical symbol for Barium is Ba. The chemical symbol for Sulfur is S. Sulfur is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. The chemical symbol for Americium is Am. Berkelium is a chemical element with atomic number 97 which means there are 97 protons and 97 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Iron is Fe. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. Mass was no longer considered unchangeable in the closed system. Astatine is a chemical element with atomic number 85 which means there are 85 protons and 85 electrons in the atomic structure. Xenon is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere in trace amounts. In a neutral atom there are as many electrons as protons moving about nucleus. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3. The chemical symbol for Mendelevium is Md. The chemical symbol for Lutetium is Lu. Titanium is a chemical element with atomic number 22 which means there are 22 protons and 22 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Carbon is C. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust.  The density of Hassium results from its high atomic weight and from the significant decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series, known as lanthanide and actinide contraction. The atomic radii decrease across the periodic table because as the atomic number increases, the number of protons increases across the period, but the extra electrons are only added to the same quantum shell. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. The chemical symbol for Palladium is Pd. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Result = O 2 ¯ Step #3 - Use the minimum number of cations and anions needed to make the sum of all charges in the formula equal zero. 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