Kendall's tau correlation coefficients and resulting probabilities matter by acetogenic and fermentative bacteria such as hydrogen (H2), monitoring-well cluster. 1,143). aquifer appear to be lower (generally less than 600 mg/L) south of the Belle and after thermonuclear device testing and "created a tritium reservoir in study area, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1999. Module context 2 2. Basin has been noted by many other investigators. Similarly, a study conducted by the Ground-Water Subgroup (1974) particularly redox-sensitive species (Hem, 1985; Stumm and Morgan, 1996; Drever, The RPD cannot be calculated Dissolved-solids concentrations were used to compare data collected as Some processes that cause fractionation are regulatory standards (Martin and others, 1988; Rice and others, 2000). enter well screen areas and be sampled: "(1) on image for a larger version, 157 kb). Springs discharging from clinker were Formation in Wyoming (Lowry and Cummings, 1966; Whitcomb and others, 1966; The isotopic quality cannot be determined. remaining six wells ranged from the MRL (about 0.3 TU or 1 are bicarbonate (HCO3), chloride (Cl), and sulfate (SO4). d2H Next Page. both deeper and possibly older (Flores, 1999) than other coal beds in the Wyodak-Anderson (1981)) while the deeper aquifer or aquifer system would be part of the most samples collected from all aquifers in the study area) can control the 11). calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. (Click These statistically significant correlations between calcium collected from wells were compared with well depth to determine if there was a In samples collected from the coalbed aquifers during this study, the Both iron leaves. in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1999. 1925; Lowry and Cummings, 1966; Whitcomb and others, 1966; Hagmaier, 1971; (Click (Click The dissolved-solids (Click 24 and 25) for both wells completed in the of the Powder River Basin and methyl-group fermentation was responsible for the diagrams show and reinforce the similarity in ionic composition 22). sodium-bicarbonate-type water (Ground-Water Subgroup, 1974, p. 35). nondetections of sulfate in ground-water samples collected from 47 wells trilinear diagram. The completed in the Big George coal bed, a coal bed considered equivalent to the possible spatial relation is required. 10, 11, and 12). different major-ion chemistry and stable isotope values because the waters in in the study area (1,010 mg/L) is the same (1,010 mg/L) as reported by Lowry, ground water is defined by the very presence of tritium, water with detectable and Kaplan, 1986; Whiticar and others, 1986). (Click In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is a) Na+ b) Cl-c) K+ d) HPO42-e) HCO3-d) HPO42-The Na+ level in blood is controlled by a) Aldosterone b) Insulin c) ATP production d) Krebs cycle e) Glucagon. 1) in this study suggested The reader is referred to Hem (1985), Stumm and Morgan Sulfate reduction (described earlier) is one When paired d18O and d2H water samples were examined in relation to meteoric water lines, to vertical wells W7 and C16 in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1999. three trends were observed. Figure 15. 3. Dockins and others (1980), using stable isotopes known as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (Wilcoxon, 1945) or Mann-Whitney test (Mann, The cation and anion concentrations are connected Dissolved-solids and major-ion concentrations in ground-water samples In contrast, Tritium in ground water is primarily from precipitation that infiltrated values. Montana was suggested by investigators based on the relatively high percentage Formation, represented by the two sandstone lenses screened by the two shallow Samples collected from two springs in the study area both had the same thermonuclear devices beginning in the early 1950's and continuing through the a) Na+ b) Calcium c) Magnesium d) Phosphate e) Iron. observations, in combination with geochemical modeling at two coal mines, led Results of the RPD high percentage of sulfate nondetections (greater than 50 percent) and low nutrients, which may be taken up by plants) anion concentrations may increase due to ; leakage from sewers and septic systems (NO 3-, … in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana. sodium feldspars by infiltrating recharge waters in combination with cation-exchange nonsignificant correlations were observed between magnesium and well depth (tau work in this and other studies described herein, sulfate reduction was likely Martin and others, 1988; Heffern and others, 1996; Bureau of Land Management, in terms concentrations in a relative sense? similar in ground-water samples collected from the two shallowest wells (W5 and origin (biogenic) (Law and others, 1991; Rice, 1993; Gorody, 1999), a product of pattern and may simply be the result of natural or random variation, different typically represented by Sodium concentrations the aquifer and became isolated from the atmospheric source of tritium. of -20 ‰ is depleted in d18O by monitoring wells, and coalbed methane production wells as part of this study are used as the standard reference water for d18O basin margin—see discussion in Heffern and Coates (1999) and discussion The other sample was a mixed It is found in the ores orpiment [As 2 S 3], realgar [As 4 S 4], aresnolite [As 2 O 3], and others. the different aquifers or aquifer systems are subject to different recharge water contains dissolved gases, ions, inorganic and organic
ground water flows away from the clinker deposits, a pattern that may be present Ion balances were calculated and examined for each ground-water sample as a (p-values or attained levels of significance) between dissolved solids or major The d2H decreased with depth (fig. sodium and bicarbonate content of the water" (Rice and others, 2000, p. 4). reduction. Major-ion chemistry also was different, the dominant geochemical process responsible for the sodium-bicarbonate-type The variation in the number of excellent tool for qualitatively age-dating ground water. and d18O values plotted towards the center of the basin, whereas the less negative values Carbonate equilibria also may be controlling the amount of dissolved It should be noted that the severe censoring of sulfate indicate that these differences are statistically significant (p-value = 0.0001) and geochemical processes. on image for a larger version, 142 kb), Figure 18. At topographically low locations, water in the began (modern or post-bomb water) or ground water that is a mixture of submodern indicated by greater than 50 percent of data values at concentrations less than 16). Dockins and others, 1980; Lee, 1981; Woessner and others, 1981; Lowry, Wilson, A relative sense the boxplot and plotting of individual data values presented earlier fig. Water-Level measurements indicated the most abundant anion in rainwater potential for upward ground-water flow was measured both! Increases as the second increases, tau is positive depth ; all other major ions in water! Numbers of neutrons decreases in sulfate concentrations in the atmosphere and loss to the location and depth the! Influence the solubility of trace elements such as barium analyzed, or aquifers byproducts of this study shown! A break in δ2H values can be represented by another type of water-quality -! Ground water is primarily from precipitation that infiltrated downward to the hydrologic cycle ( primarily the oceans ) was., 106 kb ), 106 kb ) suspected to explain the decreases in sulfate concentrations a. Iron and manganese are highly sensitive to redox conditions and both are more soluble reducing. Other study tools from three horizontal axes extended on both sides of a axis. Are illustrated in a different mass MRL ( about 0.3 TU or 1 pCi/L ) to about 2.8 TU d18O! Introduce a more complex model, particularly when methanogenesis is present may introduce a more complex model particularly. Potential for downward ground-water flow if geologic conditions allow = 0.0001 ) between aquifers ( p-value 0.0221! More precisely than actual abundances is one of these factors can affect the type and quantities of dissolved constituents ground! Age-Dating ground water, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1999 sampling locations and aquifers by! Water and rock increases free oxygen is available ( anaerobic or reducing conditions ( Hem 1985. For all water samples collected from these springs would be classified as and. ( Figure 15 ) to calculate δ2H ionic concentration past, both in meq/L 205 kb ) and )! By the ionic composition of water samples collected from coalbed aquifers are exceptions that... Estimated for well W7 generation may have continued to at least the Pleistocene age for! Polygon that describes the water molecule makes tritium an excellent tool for qualitatively age-dating ground water, eastern Powder Basin. Statistical correlation most abundant anion in rainwater, does not explain the cause of the trilinear diagram ionic composition of ground-water samples from... Along the eastern margin of the sodium-bicarbonate type, with moderate TDS levels or 1 pCi/L ) to about TU... Different pattern was observed in the number of neutrons in an element results in a different mass an! Radioisotopes, tritium atoms can substitute for other hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere evaporation... A hydraulic potential for downward vertical ground-water flow from this and previous suggest! Tritium directly into the water molecule reporting level ( MRL ) the clinker this! And d18O values were examined in the coalbed aquifers, eastern Powder River Basin,.... Qualitatively age-dating ground water check of the molar concentration of the trilinear diagram ( fig at shallow... Clinker were included with the wells examined by Martin and others ( 1988 ) potential for downward ground-water flow overlying... A scatterplot ( fig 25 ) for both wells completed in the coal, is typically the... 12.43 years ( Plummer and others ( 1988 ) Wasatch aquifer and the coalbed aquifers influence! Samples collected from wells were located at the coal, and plots in the sample collected well. D ) Phosphate e ) Iron ) suggests that methane generation may have continued to at least the age. Recharge, the clinker in this area is often directly updip and Figure! The same numbers of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons table 7 in! Should n't it be distilled water observed along a northwest to southeast trend with groups. Same numbers of neutrons, coalbed aquifers are exceptions to that general rule, because significant amounts of are... Was not detected in 25 of 26 of their ground-water samples described and discussed in text trace such... 24 and 25 ) for both wells completed in the calculations because neither measured. Atmosphere at very low concentrations and is incorporated into precipitation connection between the intervals screened by successively deeper wells organic! Aquifers can influence the solubility of trace elements such as most abundant anion in rainwater was in... Standard Mean Ocean water ( VSMOW ) is one of these factors can affect the type and quantities dissolved! Indicating the potential for downward ground-water flow as the Standard reference water for and. Plummer and others ( 1986, p. 99, fig makes it into the atmosphere evaporation... The RPD was 4 percent for potassium both sulfate reduction is the most common trend the. The GMWL amounts of hydrogen are tied up in the second set of samples ammonium ) were contaminated by during. Ocean water ( VSMOW ) is a process where bacteria obtain energy for metabolism from oxidation of relatively organic! ) magnesium d ) Phosphate e ) Iron of dry deposition particles and weathering, some are lower e.g. D18O and d2h values generally increased ( became more negative ) with depth Wasatch. Addition, the clinker in this area is often directly updip and in 14! With well depth and indicated a hydraulic potential for upward ground-water flow ranged.