Wear khaki, olive, or other neutral-colored clothing. African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by a parasite and spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. Travellers going on safari and rural areas should avoid getting bitten by tsetse flies. New research at the Yale School of Public Health has identified a family of proteins that significantly reduce the number of parasites found in the blood. Infections begin with mild to moderate symptoms like fever and body aches before moving on to serious neurological issues that include sleep disturbances (which give the disease its name). Wear neutral-colored clothing. Clothing fabric should be at least medium weight because the tsetse fly can bite through thin fabric. The tsetse fly can bite through thin fabrics, so clothing should be made of thick material. Tsetse flies are attracted to bright and dark contrasting colors. If untreated, African Trypanosomiasis can lead to a coma and be fatal. Use bed nets when sleeping. Prevention. The tsetse fly is attracted to bright colors and very dark colors. Seek immediate medical attention if bitten by a tsetse fly (the bite is painful) and symptoms appear. Treatment includes taking antiparasitic drugs. Tsetse flies can bite through material, so clothing should be made of thick fabric. Prevent tsetse fly bites by taking the following steps: Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats. Wear khaki or olive colored clothing. Microscopic African trypanosomes (left), the parasites that cause African sleeping sickness, are spread by the bite of the tsetse fly (right). Look inside vehicles for tsetse flies before getting into them.