Brunger F(1). 2, Ethics, Values and Personal Moral Philosophy or Ethical IdeologyIt is well accepted that moral philosophy or ethical ideology influences an individual’sreasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992; Fritzsche and Becker,1984; Hunt and Vitell, 1986; Fraedrich and Farrell, 1992) and consequent behavior.Differences in moral philosophy or ethical ideology are contended to explain differences inethical judgments (Schlenker and Forsyth, 1977; Forsyth, 1980; Forsyth 1992). 15. In such situations people may feel the need to arbitrate in a way thatmakes their lives feel reasonably coherent and continuous (Midgley, 1991). About 90 per cent of themanagers were university degree holders with professional qualifications like Master ofBusiness Administration and Engineering and only 9.7 per cent were not university graduates.Table 3: Educational ProfileEducation Frequency Per centNon graduates 17 9.7Graduates 45 25.7Postgraduate 44 25.1including PhDEngineers 55 31.4MBA 13 7.4Total 174 99.4Missing 1 .6Total 175 100.0Table 4 indicates the positions held by the managers in the formal organizational hierarchy.The highest number belonged to middle management, which is 45 per cent, and the senior andlower managements having similar numbers.Table 4: Position in the Organisational HierarchyManagement Frequency Per centLevelLower 40 22.9Middle 79 45.1Senior 42 24.0CEO 13 7.4Total 174 99.4Missing 1 .6Total 175 100.0 8, Analysis and Discussion Ethical IdeologiesThe SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences) was used to calculate the idealism andrelativism scores. What the majority of people in that society believes is important will drive decisions. In order to be able to classify the sample as situationists, subjectivists, absolutists andexceptionists, median scores for both idealism and relativism were calculated and fourcategories were created as done by Barnett et al (1994) and Forsyth and Nye (1990).High Idealism and High Relativism score = 46–90Low Idealism and Low Relativism score = 0–45The data indicated that managers are both highly idealistic and highly relativistic. They say it’s too hard to tell what most people think is important to the whole society, so it’s a messy idea to base decisions on. Keeping in mind that this study does not include the behavioural aspect ofapplication of the moral philosophies, there could be a discrepancy between ideal moralstandards and the actual behaviour, because of situational factors. and Patzer, G.L. Email: [email protected] Abstract Increasing globalisation of businesses has also increased emphasis on doing business ethically. It is never necessary to sacrifice the welfare of others10. Advertisement. Atheism Expert. For example, we may make a decision based on following the law or based on our loyalty toward friends or family members.A. 1988 ‘Will Ethics of Business Change? Punjab is situated in north India and constitutes 17 districts, covering approximately50,362 square kilometers of area and has the highest per capita generation in country, which is2.5 times the national average and having the lowest numbers of man-hours lost due tolockouts, strikes and disputes in the surrounding states (Udyog Sahayak, 1999). and Richardson, W.R. 1994 ‘Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 205–221Forsyth, D.R. M.A., Princeton University; B.A., University of … We are interested in the extent to which you agree ordisagree with such matters of opinion.Please read each statement carefully. Ohio: MerrillFord, C.R. 1998 ‘Do demographic Correlates of Ethical Perceptions Generalise to Non-American Samples: A Study of Managers in India’, Cross Cultural Management, 5 (1), 23–33Cyriac, K. and Dharamraj, R. 1994 ‘Machiavellianism in Indian Management’, Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 281–286England, G.W. Festival of Sacrifice: The Past and Present of the Islamic Holiday of Eid al-Adha. The literature search revealed that largest proportion of studies focus on values andethical behaviour in the area of marketing management. Forsyth (1980:177) believes that althoughno ethical ideology adopted by an individual may posses all the characteristics of a purelydeontological approach, the emphasis on maintaining consistency with the moral principles issimilar to deontological philosophy. As Kolnai(1977:9) says, We constantly choose on some ground what we would reject on some other ground, or conversely. Whether a lie is judged to be moral or immoral depends upon the circumstances surrounding the action. You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! 1994 ‘A Cross-cultural Study of Moral Philosophies, Ethical Perceptions and Judgments- A comparison of American and Thai Marketers’, International Marketing Review, 11(6), 65–78Soares, F. 1981 ‘Values of Indian Managers, the Basis of Progress’, Indian Management, October, 32–38Trevino, L.K. 1995 ‘Consumer ethics in cross-cultural settings- Entrepreneurial implications’, European Journal of Marketing, 29 (7), 62–78Rest, J.R. and Thoma, S. 1985 ‘Relation of moral judgment development to formal education’, Developmental Psychology, 21, 709–714Rokeach, M. 1973 The Nature of Human Values. Thisethical philosophy rejects the use of consequences of an action as basis for moral evaluationand appeals to natural law or rationality to determine ethical judgments. The InstrumentThe Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) (Appendix 1) was developed by Forsyth to measureethical ideologies and moral philosophies held by individuals. Will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans (or Our Health?! It constituted 75.4 per cent Hindus, 20 percent Sikhs, while ‘others’ were managers who did not report their religion.Table 1: ReligionReligion Frequency Per centHindu 132 75.4Sikh 35 20.0Other 8 4.5Total 175 100.0The highest proportion of the managers in the sample (44 per cent) were in the age group 36–45 years, with 32 per cent in the age group 25–35 years and 21 per cent in the age group 46–55 years. Share Flipboard Email Print Nazman Mizan / EyeEm/Getty Images Other Religions. The rights theory of ethics says that people make decisions based on the rights that their society agrees to. Ethical egoism, for example,is a skeptical ethical philosophy in which a pragmatic approach is taken to evaluate actions. This research was designed to study the ethical positions held by the managers in India, according to Forsyth’s taxonomy of ethical ideologies, using Forsyth’s Ethics Position Questionnaire. Ethical ideology is predicted to play a role in the occurrence of workplace deviance. Moral standards are simply personal rules which indicate how a person should behave and are not to be applied in making judgments of others17. London: Athlone Press, University of LondonLane, M.S., Schaupp, D. and Parsons, B. Removing item 7 from the idealism scale increased alpha coefficient to .704 and ifboth item 7 and item 9 were removed from the idealism scale the alpha coefficient increasedto .713. A number of factors may influence the ethical decisionmaking process. Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life. The moral normative theory also describes the consequences of not choosing one option over the other. Fact Check: What Power Does the President Really Have Over State Governors? This is not to say that it isimpossible to maintain ideal standards of behaviour consistently. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for idealism scale was .683 and .825 for therelativism scale. What is. 1977 Ethical Attitudes of Indian Managers. The paper also discusses the possible explanations for the high idealism scores of managers and a seemingly contradictory perception of India as overall a corrupt country with widespread unethical business practices. They statethat although internal factors like individual moral development are important, ethical conductdepends, to a large extent on external factors such as the expectations of the authority figures,one’s position in the organizational hierarchy, what the colleagues are doing, the rewardsystem and the roles that an individual is asked to play. 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